Kidney Disease and Obesity
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health. In 2014, worldwide over 600 million adults were obese. Obesity is a potent risk factor for the development of kidney disease. It increases the risk of developing major risk factors of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), like diabetes and hypertension, and it has a direct impact on the development of CKD and End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). In individuals affected by obesity, the kidneys have to work harder, filtering more blood than normal (hyper-filtration) to meet the metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in function can damage the kidney and raise the risk of developing CKD in the long-term.
The good news is that obesity, as well as CKD, is largely preventable. Education and awareness of the risks of obesity and a healthy lifestyle, including proper nutrition and exercise, can dramatically help in preventing obesity and kidney disease.
This year World Kidney Day promotes education about the harmful consequences of obesity and its association with kidney disease, advocating healthy lifestyle and health policy measures that make preventive behaviors an affordable option.
THE RELATION BETWEEN KIDNEY DISEASE AND OBESITY
Kidney disease is more likely to develop in obese people including in those with diabetes and hypertension. By 2025, obesity will affect 18% of men and over 21% of women worldwide, and that severe obesity will affect 6% of all men and 9% of all women around the world. In some nations, obesity is already present in more than one-third of the adult population and contributes significantly to overall poor health and high annual medical costs.
In the general population, obesity increases the risk of death and contributes to many other diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, obstructive sleep apnea, fatty liver, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis, various cancers, mental disorders, and poor quality of life.
A growing body of evidence indicates that obesity is also a potent risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). People who are overweight or obese have 2 to 7 more chances of developing ESRD compared to those of normal weight.
Obesity may lead to CKD both indirectly by increasing type-2 diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, and also by causing direct kidney damage by increasing the workload of the kidneys and other mechanisms. Reducing obesity may reverse or slow CKD progression.
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious condition that develops suddenly, often lasts a short time and may disappear completely once the underlying cause has been treated, but it can also have long-lasting consequences with life-long problems. AKI occurs more frequently in obese people.
WHAT CAN YOU DO FOR YOUR KIDNEYS? – 8 GOLDEN RULES TO KEEPING YOUR KIDNEYS HEALTHY.
Kidney diseases are silent killers, which will largely affect your quality of life. There are however several easy ways to reduce the risk of developing kidney disease. Some of the best 8 are:
Keep fit and active
Keeping fit helps to reduce your blood pressure and therefore reduces the risk of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD).
Keep regular control of your blood sugar level
About half of people who have diabetes develop kidney damage, so it is important for people with diabetes to have regular tests to check their kidney functions. Kidney damage from diabetes can be reduced or prevented if detected early. It is important to keep control of blood sugar levels with the help of doctors or pharmacists, who are always happy to help.
Monitor your blood pressure
Although many people may be aware that high blood pressure can lead to a stroke or heart attack, few know that it is also the most common cause of kidney damage. The normal blood pressure level is 120/80. Between this level and 139/89, you are considered pre-hypertensive and should adopt lifestyle and dietary changes. At 140/90 and above, you should discuss the risks with your doctor and monitor your blood pressure level regularly. High blood pressure is especially likely to cause kidney damage when associated with other factors like diabetes, high cholesterol and Cardio- Vascular Diseases.
Eat healthy and keep your weight in check
This can help prevent diabetes, heart disease and other conditions associated with Chronic Kidney Disease.
Reduce your salt intake.
The recommended sodium intake is 5-6 grams of salt per day (around a teaspoon). In order to reduce your salt intake, try and limit the amount of processed and restaurant food and do not add salt to food. It will be easier to control your intake if you prepare the food yourself with fresh ingredients.
Maintain a healthy fluid intake
Although clinical studies have not reached an agreement on the ideal quantity of water and other fluids we should consume daily to maintain good health, traditional wisdom has long suggested drinking 1.5 to 2 litres (3 to 4 pints) of water per day.
According to Researchers in Australia and Canada, consuming plenty of fluid helps the kidneys clear sodium, urea and toxins from the body which, in turn, results in a “significantly lower risk” of developing CKD. The findings, the researchers said, do not advocate “aggressive fluid loading”, which can cause side effects, but they do provide evidence that moderately increased water intake, around two litres daily, may reduce the risk of decline in kidney function. It is important to keep in mind that the right level of fluid intake for any individual depends on many factors including gender, exercise, climate, health conditions, pregnancy and breast feeding. In addition, people who have already had a kidney stone are advised to drink 2 to 3 litres of water daily to lessen the risk of forming a new stone.
Do not smoke
Smoking slows the flow of blood to the kidneys. When less blood reaches the kidneys, it impairs their ability to function properly. Smoking also increases the risk of kidney cancer by about 50 percent.
Do not take over-the-counter pills on a regular basis
Common drugs such non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen are known to cause kidney damage and disease if taken regularly.
Such medications probably do not pose significant danger if your kidneys are relatively healthy and you use them for emergencies only, but if you are dealing with chronic pain, such as arthritis or back pain, work with your doctor to find a way to control your pain without putting your kidneys at risk.
Get your kidney function checked if you have one or more of the ‘high risk’ factors
You have diabetes.
You have hypertension.
You are obese.
One of your parents or other family members suffers from kidney disease.
Article – culled from: http://www.worldkidneyday.org/